Construction Contracts

The standards, which have been set in the bold type should be read in the context of the background material and implementation guidance in this Standard, and in the context of the Foreword to MASB Standards. MASB Standards are not intended to apply to immaterial items.


The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment of revenue and costs associated with construction contracts. Because of the nature of the activity undertaken in construction contracts, the date at which the contract activity is entered into and the date when the activity is completed usually fall into different accounting periods. Therefore, the primary issue in accounting for construction contracts is the allocation of contract revenue and contract costs to the accounting periods in which construction work is performed. This Standard uses the recognition criteria established in the MASB's A Proposed Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements to determine when contract revenue and contract costs should be recognised as revenue and expenses in the income statement. It also provides practical guidance on the application of these criteria.


  1. This Standard should be applied in accounting for construction contracts in the financial statements of contractors.

  2. Exempt enterprises need not comply with this Standard.

  3. This Standard supersedes MASB Approved Accounting Standard IAS 11, Accounting for Construction Contracts and International Accounting Standard IAS 11 (revised), Construction Contracts, issued by the Malaysian professional accountancy bodies in 1978 and 1997 respectively.



  1. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

    A construction contract is a contract specifically negotiated for the construction of an asset or a combination of assets that are closely interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design, technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use.

    A fixed price contract is a construction contract in which the contractor agrees to a fixed contract price, or a fixed rate per unit of output, which in some cases is subject to cost escalation clauses.

    A cost plus contract is a construction contract in which the contractor is reimbursed for allowable or otherwise defined costs, plus a percentage of these costs or a fixed fee.

    An exempt enterprise is defined as an enterprise that:

    1. does not have public accountability;

    2. at the balance sheet date, all of its owners are members of the enterprise's governing body; and

    3. is not large.

  1. A construction contract may be negotiated for the construction of a single asset such as a bridge, building, dam, pipeline, road, ship or tunnel. A construction contract may also deal with the construction of a number of assets which are closely interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design, technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use; examples of such contracts include those for the construction of refineries and other complex pieces of plant or equipment.

  2. For the purposes of this Standard, construction contracts include:


    1. contracts for the rendering of services which are directly related to the construction of the asset, for example, those for the services of project managers and architects; and

    2. contracts for the destruction or restoration of assets, and the restoration of the environment following the demolition of assets.

  1. Construction contracts are formulated in a number of ways which, for the purposes of this Standard, are classified as fixed price contracts and cost plus contracts. Some construction contracts may contain characteristics of both a fixed price contract and a cost plus contract, for example in the case of a cost plus contract with an agreed maximum price. In such circumstances, a contractor needs to consider all the conditions in paragraphs 27 and 28 in order to determine when to recognise contract revenue and expenses.

  2. Public accountability is deemed to exist where there are likely to be sufficient stakeholders who base their resource allocation decisions upon their knowledge of the enterprise. The stakeholders include resource providers (including employees); recipients of goods and services; and parties performing review or oversight functions. Notwithstanding the above, an enterprise has public accountability for the purposes of this Standard if the enterprise has the coercive power to obtain public funds by method of imposing taxes, rates, tolls, levies or the like.

  3. Where every owner of an enterprise is also a member of the enterprise's governing body, there is an absence of accountability relationships between the governing body and the owners. Separation between owners and the governing body is thus another surrogate to indicate the existence of dependent users. Where the owner is not part of the body that makes the operational and financial decisions relating to the enterprise, he may not be privy to certain information that is considered necessary to make efficient resource allocation decisions. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that dependent users exist in such circumstances. Similarly, if the parent or ultimate controlling enterprise has the coercive power to tax, rate or levy to obtain public funds, the enterprise is not permitted to use the lack of separation between the owners and the governing body as a basis for qualifying as an exempt enterprise.

  4. For the purpose of applying this Standard, an enterprise is large if it exceeds any two of the following:

    1. an annual gross revenue of RM 10 million;

    2. gross assets of RM 5 million at the end of the financial year; and

    3. an average of 50 employees for the financial year.

    The criteria for size will be reviewed from time to time to reflect changes in the business environment.


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